1.1 General description and the key data of the constitutional systemThe system of legal acts of the Republic of Lithuania is constituted by the supreme law of a country - the Constitution, laws also other legal acts (Government resolutions, decisions adopted by municipal councils and the like).
A presently applicable Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania adopted in 1992 is a comparatively short document. The Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania outlines the fundamental principles of the life of the State. The Constitution comprises a preamble, 14 Chapters and final provisions.
The First Chapter is called "The State of Lithuania". It defines the system of government and the one who executes the powers of the State, designates the juridical powers of the Constitution and stresses the territorial integrity of the State of Lithuania and the like. The Second Chapter "The Human Being and the State" is related to human rights in the State. The provisions of the Third Chapter "Society and the State" are closely connected to family, religion, education, and culture. The Fourth Chapter "National Society and Labour" refers to the system of ownership, points out what belongs by the right of exclusive ownership to the Republic of Lithuania, describes the provisions of the Sate in respect of freely choosing a job or business and indicates the principles concerning employees ‘health as well we the relationship between the natural environment and society. The Firth Chapter refers to the Seimas, the Sixth Chapter - to the President of the Republic, the Seventh Chapter - to the Government of the Republic of Lithuania, the Eighth Chapter - to the Constitutional Court, the Ninth Chapter consider the principles of the courts of the Republic of Lithuania. The provision of the State related to local self-government and governance is presented in the Tenth Chapter. The Eleventh Chapter is devoted to describe the principles of the system of finances and the state budget. The Twelfth Chapter outlines the basics of the State Control. The Thirteenth Chapter is related to describe the fundamentals of foreign policy and national defence of the State. The Fourteenth Chapter depicts the procedure of alteration to the Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania.
Here are the key features of the life of the State inscribed in the Constitution:
- "The State of Lithuania shall be an independent democratic republic"(Article 1). The territory of the State of Lithuania shall be integral and shall not be divided into any State-like formations.
- Strong principles of ownership provided in the Constitution of Lithuania: "Property is inviolable. The rights of ownership shall be protected by laws" (Article 23). However, "property may be taken over only for the needs of society according to the procedure established by law and shall be justly compensated for"(Article 23).
- The Constitution of Lithuania clearly proclaims that Lithuania is the State of market. Article 46 the Constitution states that Lithuania's economy shall be based on the right of private ownership, freedom of individual economic activity and initiative.
- The key points are reflected in the Constitution of Lithuania. For instance, Article 46 of the Constitution indicates that "the State shall support economic efforts and initiative that are useful to society", "the State shall regulate economic activity so that it serves the general welfare of the Nation", "the law shall prohibit monopolisation of production and the market and shall protect freedom of fair competition"(Article 46). Article 48 of the Constitution maintains that "each human being may freely choose a job or business, and shall have the right to have proper, safe and healthy conditions at work".