1.1 The basic constitutional rules

The supreme law of the Republic of Poland is the Constitution. The provisions of the Constitution shall apply directly, unless the Constitution provides otherwise. According to the Constitution adopted on April 2nd 1997 the Republic of Poland is the common good of all its citizens. The Republic of Poland is a democratic state ruled by law and implementing the principles of social justice. The Republic of Poland is a unitary state. Supreme power in the Republic of Poland is vested in the nation. The nation exercises such power directly or through their representatives. A nationwide referendum may be held in respect of matters of particular importance to the state.

The political system of the Republic of Poland is based on the separation of and balance between the legislative, executive and judicial powers. Legislative power is vested in the Sejm and the Senate (lower and upper house of parliament), main executive power is vested in the President of the Republic of Poland and the Council of Ministers, and the judicial power is vested in the independent courts and tribunals.

The Republic of Poland ensures freedom of the press and other means of social communication. The Republic of Poland ensures freedom for the creation and functioning of trade unions, socio-occupational organizations of farmers, societies, citizens' movements, other voluntary associations and foundations.