1.2. History of the constitutional system

The first country constitution was adopted in 1918 - one year after socialist revolution. This constitution at once abolished all existed state institutions and struck out all the Russian state forming experience. The constitution of the country, which since 1924 become Soviet Union, has changed three times (in 1924, 1936 and 1977), but key principles declared and affected political and economic activity till the adoption of the last Constitution reminded stable:
  • all the power is at hands of the workers and peasants;
  • the private property on the land, factories, transport (save cars), infrastructures and housing stock (but single-family houses) is forbidden;
  • under central planning system all decisions regarding needs of the people were taken at the top.

The constitution of 1924 outlined federal competences, republics' competences and status. The constitution of 1936 declared and constitution of 1977 confirmed one-party political system, which was established in Russia long before. Most important feature of political system, based on previous constitutions was the specific organization of the feedback between political leaders issuing decisions and the rest of population: the feedback was limited by the fight with signals, which have not corresponded to strategy adopted by country leaders. Other principal aspect consisted in the absence of natural and world-wide known stimulus for the development of effective economy. In the long run such features caused stagnation both the policy and economy.