1.4. Fundamental principles of the political and the administrative systemBy Constitution political and administrative duties are substantially separated. The representation of political alliances at federal and regional representative bodies is the results of general elections. The administration must act within framework of valid federal and regional legislation. The federal administration has not the right to command by regional structures, which must act according to federal laws and white papers (acts of executive bodies). The municipal bodies are not subordinated to federal and regional bodies, but are under control of local population.
RF exclusive competence covers:
- adoption of (or adoption amendments to) the Russian Constitution and federal laws, federal legislation compliance control;
- federal composition and federal territory;
- regulations and protection of the human rights and freedoms, Russian citizenship; regulations and protection of national minorities' rights;
- establishment of all federal authorities, their structures and procedures of activity;
- federal property management;
- establishment of the federal policy base and federal programs of state, economic, ecological, social, cultural and national RF development;
- establishment of the legal base at national-scale market: finances, currency, credit, custom regulations, emission, price policy base, federal economic services including federal banks;
- federal budget, federal taxes and dues, federal funds of regional development;
- federal energy systems, nuclear energy, federal transport, federal communications and information, space activity;
- foreign policy and international RF contacts, international agreements, peace and war issues;
- RF foreign economic contacts;
- defense and safety, defense industry, the procedure of munitions trade, the production of poisonous substances and drugs;
- demarcation and control of state boundaries, territorial waters, air space, exclusive economic zone and continental shelf;
- judicial system, public prosecution system, criminal legislation, amnesty and forgiveness, civil and arbitration legislation, legislation on intellectual property;
- conflicts of federal laws;
- meteorological service;
- federal public service.
Joint RF and regional competence covers:
- compliance of regional constitutions, charters, laws and other normative acts to RF Constitution and to federal laws;
- issues of ownership, use and disposal of land, bosom, water and other regional natural resources;
- nature management, nature protection and ecological safety, cultural landmarks preservation;
- delimitation of the state property;
- general issues on upbringing, education, science, culture and sport;
- general issues on public health protection, family protection, social protection and social maintenance;
- implementation of steps against accidents, natural disasters, epidemics;
- establishment of general principles of taxation and dues;
- administrative, labor, family, housing, nature protection legislation, legislation on land, water, forests and bosom;
- the stuff of judicial and law-enforcement bodies, attorneys, notaries;
- the protection of the traditional environment and way of life of ethnic minorities;
- the establishment of general principles of state, regional and local public bodies.
Issues, which are not covered by the Constitution are at the regional competence. Once the Constitution is a very general document, the specific procedures regarding the establishment of political and administrative institutions are stipulated by federal legislation, which is changing in the course of state institutions reforming. The urban planning and development activity is not attributed in a direct way by the Constitution as the issue of federal or joint (federal and regional) competence. Proceeding from their attribution to administrative justice urban planning and land development activity are considered as subjects of joint competence.