3.1 General description, history, and key data of the administrative system

The essential administrative bodies in Russia include: RF Government and its executive structures, regional governments with their executive structures and municipal administration. The undeveloped civil self-consciousness and public institutions at Russia has as outcome certain traditions and preferences, which form both current political and administrative systems. In spite an obvious orientation of Russian legislation toward European values, analysts stress, that the as key consolidating and mobilizing factors still are not parties, political lines or state public bodies, but certain personalities. Russian bureaucrat serves more to persons, than to law, be these persons his direct chiefs, RF President or businessmen. At the start of 1990s the presidency was established against a background of economic and political crisis, worsening of national relations, slackening of the executive power and its unity. Decisions taken by authorities were not accurately implemented even by state bodies, non-coordination between national and regional legislation increased. The representative bodies failed to establish effective executive structures and communicate with them without interfering into their routine executive activity. The strong President's authority, independent from elected body, was considered as an instrument to provide stability, efficient state management and law-abiding activity. RF President is authorized by large and real powers. He is not subordinated to any state body, once by Constitution the President got his power directly from country population; he is not accounted for his policy to Parliament. Only exclusions are in the case of his accusation in high treason or other grave crime by complicated procedure, carried out by FA chambers. The head of Russia therefore enjoys immunity, which provides the stability of his power.


By estimations of many analysts Russian bureaucracy has got extraordinary competences. But these competences do not correspond to the quality of the executive power. In spite of numerous stuff of state administration (some 1.5 millions or more than 1% of country population) there is deficiency of skilled managers in all state structures. Till the very last time intersected duties of different ministries and performance of decision-making and its control by the same body corrupted executive structures.


Each region has its government. As well as at national level the largest part in taking key decisions has head of the region. Most part of self-government structures also has their heads and administrations. The budgets of the country and its regions are adopted by representative bodies. Local budgets are to be adopted according to municipal by-laws. Deductions to budgets of different levels are allocated annually, but can not be less than established by federal law. For federal budget the main sources are: value added tax, excises for mineral and spirits. Regional budget gets profit tax, part of Income tax paid by physical persons, and part of property tax. Municipality gets part of Income tax paid by physical persons, part of property tax, land tax, municipal property gains.