1.2 Main principlesThe main directions of the state policy in spatial development and urban planning aim to sustainable development of urban and rural settlements, transport system, engineering and technical infrastructure, social amenities, recreation and health care system, preservation and efficient usage of historical, cultural and natural values.
Considering the historical difference of regions, urban and rural settlements, the tasks of spatial planning are based on the principles of varied approach to their development:
- stimulating of development of the settlements and territories with high competitive economic, scientific, technical, demographic and social potential;
- consolidated development, solution of a problem of stagnation in the settlements and on territories with a potential to growth, promoting self-development;
- state regulation of development in the settlements and on territories with crucial ecological, social, demographic, economic condition, protection for the territories with valuable historical and cultural heritage, natural and recreational potential;
- direct state administration for the development of zones with special state interests.
At present the implementation of state policy on sustainable development and urban planning plays important role as this activity enables to appreciate natural, economic, social conditions and develop different options for the most efficient territorial development, social and economic progress, preservation and protection of historical and cultural values. Apparently, unbalanced spatial planning can lead to enormous negative economic, social and ecological outcomes.
There are three levels of spatial (territorial) planning in Belarus:
- National level covers the whole territory of Belarus or two and more regions;
- Regional level covers a territory of region or group of administrative districts;
- Local level covers a territory of single administrative district or settlement or its part (with or without suburban zone).
Objects and subjects of spatial planning
The main subjects of spatial planning are state authorities of a certain administrative and territorial level. For example, at the national level they are represented by the President of the Republic of Belarus, Council of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus, and the ministry that is responsible for territorial planning (Ministry of Architecture and Construction of the Republic of Belarus).
Regional representative and executive bodies are the subjects of spatial planning at the regional level.
Local level is represented by councils of deputies, executive committees of administrative districts and urban settlements.
Citizens who take part in territorial development process through public organizations, parties, territorial communities according to legislative procedures, belong to the subjects of spatial planning as well.
In Belarus the object of spatial planning at the national level is the whole territory of the country.
At the regional level the object of spatial planning includes region and group of administrative districts.
At the local level the object of spatial planning is represented by administrative district, settlement, territory as constellation of the plots of land.
There are four objective areas in spatial planning:
- Land-use planning and land-utilization;
- Planning of dissemination of the population, settlements development, allocation of industrial, social, engineering and technical infrastructure, communication;
- Planning of social and economic development;
- Planning of nature use and measures on nature protection.