3. Planning levels and specific aspectsThere are three planning levels:
Planning in the Republic of Belarus is divided into:
- Comprehensive planning
- Specialized planning
- Detailed planning
Comprehensive planning is creating policies along with goals and objectives, based on statistic data, maps and other information to guide the economic, physical and social development of the territory. Comprehensive planning sets priorities and articulates main directions for development strategy. It forms settlement structure, outlines territory usage and stipulates limitations for territory usage, specifies development of social, industrial, transport and engineering infrastructures.
Spatial plans of comprehensive planning include:
- national plan of spatial development of the republic of Belarus;
- schemes of spatial development of the regions and other administrative and territorial units (regional plans and administrative districts spatial plan of development);
- master plans of urban settlements and other types of settlements.
These plans have binding character.
Specialized planning is spatial planning when the order of development and approval of spatial plan as well as its content and the borders of planning object, are not set by the legislative act but are specified by architectural body who is an initiator of development of that plan.
At the national level specialized schemes and projects are presented by schemes, forecasts and programs of:
- spatial development of bordering regions;
- development of the territories along international and main national communications;
- territorial development of contaminated zones;
- territorial development of special protection areas;
- territorial development of energy and communication systems, transport communications and other features of infrastructure; ]
- development of other territories according to the legislation.
At the local level specialized schemes and projects can be presented by:
- detailed plans for particular territories;
- plans of borders of suburban zones;
- plans and schemes of social, industrial, transport, engineering infrastructure;
- plans and schemes of spatial arrangement for special protection areas; spatial schemes of nature protection;
The customers of specialized schemes and projects can be national and local authorities or territorial architectural and urban planning bodies empowered by them. Specialized schemes and projects define special terms and requirements for comprehensive and detailed plans.
Detailed planning is a planning that is implemented at the local level. It is developed for build-up or undeveloped territories and its particular parts (residential areas, microraions, other elements of planning structure).
Detailed plan is a legal document assigns character of use and boundaries of territory and its segments according to function defined. Detailed plan, basing on the approved master plan, specifies decisions on territory arrangement and sets red lines and building line; urban planning orders, etc. Detailed plan is developed for the part of the city, urban or rural settlement; for housing, manufacturing, landscape-recreation and other functional zones and territories. The aim of detailed plan is regularization of investment process on the territory in terms of requirements prescribed towards territory usage and subsequent development. It is elaborated for areas where it is expected fulfillment of big investment projects (for example, new housing construction) or for developing areas where local authorities are interested in strict control (for example, inner city, historical areas).
Detailed plans are developed for:
- the parts of urban and rural settlements,
- residential, industrial, recreational and other functional zones,
- territories adjoined to the planning nodes, streets,
- territories for prospective investment activity.