1.2. Basic principles

According to the last Urban Development Code the principles of legislation on spatial planning are as follows:
  • securing of sustainable territorial development;
  • balanced consideration of ecological, economic, social and other important prerequisites;
  • preservation of cultural heritage as well as most valuable and sensitive natural areas;
  • securing unimpeded accessibility to social and other relevant objects for invalids;
  • possibility for all interested persons and associations to participate in spatial planning and land use regulation;
  • responsibility of public bodies for favorable living conditions;
  • observance of requirements regarding safety and prevention of extraordinary situations;
  • responsibility for infraction of the urban planning and land development legislation;
  • indemnification of damages, caused by the infraction of the law.
Spatial planning in Russia must be performed at all officially established public levels. By the Urban Development Code territorial planning schemes are to be produced by Federation, by regions and by municipal districts. There are allowed joint territorial planning schemes, produced by any combination of administrative territories. Master plans too are considered as documents of territorial planning and are performed by municipal urban okrugs and by other municipal settlements. The essential outcomes of the territorial planning decisions include:
  • delimitation of land for different destinations (land categories) as for agriculture, for settlements, for industry and some special uses; for preserved natural landscapes, forests, waters;
  • functional zoning (obligatory for master plans);
  • location of areas, designated for objects, which are under responsibility of different levels (objects of federal, regional or municipal importance);
  • tracing of most important transport and engineering communications;
  • territories of cultural landmarks;
  • specific land use conditions zones with boundaries and regimes settled according to federal legislation (cultural monuments preservation, sanitary, water protective areas etc.).

Decisions of the land planning documentation cover smaller areas within settlements and concern parameters of land planning elements (as streets, roads, blocks etc.), lots' boundaries and land use requirements for each lot. This documentation is to be adopted by Federation, regions and municipal districts for their construction purposes (objects of appropriate importance and responsibility), and must be adopted by municipalities of settlements in all other cases: for municipal (public) and for private needs.

Save RF Urban Development Code there are other federal laws and by-laws, substantial for spatial planning:

  • Land Code (adopted in 2001) which stipulates public and private land rights and legal regime regarding different land categories;
  • Law on Cultural Heritage of Russia (2002);
  • Law on Sanitary-epidemiological Prosperity of RF Peoples (1999);
  • legislation on nature protection, including Law on Nature Protection (2002), Code on Waters, Code on Forests;
  • Law on Prevention of Emergent Situations of Natural and Anthropogenic Character (1994);
  • federal legislation on transport;
  • sanitary norms, building codes;
  • Regulation on environmental impact assessment (2000).