1.4. Functions

Urban planning and land development activity is responsible for spatial development of human environment by means of:
  • rational use of natural resources;
  • providing of human activity by the systems of engineering, transportation and social infrastructures;
  • rational intercommunication between areas with different land uses;
  • observance of restrictions established due to specific conditions (sanitary, preservation of natural and cultural objects, others);
  • ensuring of safety and acceptable environmental qualities.

The issuance of urban planning decisions based on the rational balance of plenty tasks and interests, requires credible forecasts, regarding future social demands and possibilities as well as estimation of relevant territorial resources. Last years trends concerning social demands and possibilities in Russia are sometimes outlined in strategic plans, worked out and adopted by cities or larger areas (http://www.citystrategy.leontief.ru/ ). As a rule strategic plan is based on estimation of the considered area competitive potential, definition of area specific role in the division of labor. Plan poses development problems, goals, tasks and essential actions, including legislative steps, key programs and organizational changes. Within strategic plan or on its base are worked out demographic and economic forecast, employment trends. These outcomes represent important frame for territorial planning decisions, including accessible financial sources. Estimation of territories is carried out in all important aspects: as natural resource, as area accessible by transportation, there are considered functional uses, engineering facilities, quality of buildings and constructions, sanitary situation, objects of cultural heritage, possible extraordinary situations as floods, mudflows, fires etc. Decisions of territorial planning documents should integrate socio-economic goals and perspectives (including solvent demand and investors' activity) and preferable uses of different areas.