1.5. Main Instruments of Implementation

According to the RF Urban Development Code, goals and tasks of territorial planning shall be specified for each territorial planning document. This document may not perform all the planning functions, for example, it may be designed only for protection of natural resources or for transportation development and it may be influenced by a specific socio-economic or territorial situation. A large part of Russian regions and cities are gravely concerned with deficiencies of investments and manpower resources. To overcome such deficiencies territorial planners usually rely on the development of all types of infrastructure, improvement of the urban environment, transparency of development regulations, and a balance between public interests and interests of stakeholders and other parties. During the preparation of proposals, the following factors are considered: accessible financial and manpower resources; potential of different areas for development as nature reserves, agricultural land or urban complexes - existing developments, their significance, potential, catchments area.

At all planning levels, areas and objects for public use (federal, regional and local) appropriate to the map scale, shall be identified. For public areas, the requirements of the land use and development code (zoning ordinance) are not applied, but these requirements must be adopted by an act of the municipal executive body. Territorial planning documents include sections to be adopted (project proposals) and sections that contain substantiation of project proposals. Both parts contain maps and texts. Territorial planning documents may be presented by public bodies or associations for the conclusion of the State Expert Board. The function of the Board is to check the documents' conformity to technical regulations (safety standards) and the rationality of planning proposals. A negative conclusion of the State Expert Board does not mean that a document cannot be adopted, but it makes the adopting body responsible for all consequences.

At the level of cities the most important instrument of territorial planning is the master plan, outlining functional zones and essential linear objects (as engineering and transport communications). Functional zones may include:

  • residential zones of different types;
  • zones for public and business objects;
  • zones for manufactures;
  • recreational zones;
  • zones for objects of engineering and transportation infrastructures;
  • special zones where dominate one type of usage (as cemeteries and crematoria, defense structures, prisons, waste products accumulation and treatment etc.).

List of functional zones is not limited by the RF Urban Development Code. By the master plan save functional zones are represented zones with specific land use conditions (established according to federal legislation on nature protection, public safety etc.) and, as proposals for acception by corresponding bodies, areas designated for future objects of federal, regional or municipal district responsibility. All proposals of the master plan in cases, they contradict to formerly adopted schemes or affect interests of other levels or neighboring territories, must be supplied by approvals of concerned parties. After adoption of the master plan and in accord with it respective municipality (city okrug or municipal settlement) works out land use and development code (zoning ordinance), which includes territorial zoning map (land use and development zoning map), land development requirements within outlined zones and procedure of zoning ordinance application. Maps of restrictions established due to specific conditions overlay the map of territorial zones.

In view of planning decisions of master plans there are usually distinguished polar types of areas:

  • "urban framework" (sort of "skeleton"), including centers of different order, streets and roads connecting centers and adjacent uses, which engage great number of day-time visitors;
  • "urban tissue", covering more homogenous and inert areas.

Within urban framework as most important are usually considered radial transport lines (axes of planning sectors) and ring lines; the number of both types within city is considered as indicator of maturity for the city of certain size. In most cases planners consider, that floor area density must follow land value, i.e. its highest levels gravitate to urban framework, especially to very city center. There are not legal or normative acts, concerning urban framework and connected density difference, but according to professional tradition the mentioned issues are studied with the application of mathematical models (transportation mobility, land mass appraising etc.) and properly considered.

By law public hearings are obligatory before adoption of master plans, land use and development codes, land planning documentation. All territorial planning and land planning documents must be published and their accessibility is to be provided for any interested person or party.

Within three months after adoption of territorial planning document the administration head of relevant level adopts the plan of its implementation. Plan provides time schedule for all anticipated actions (adoption land planning documentation, construction designs, construction of public objects) and due financial supply. After adoption of the master plan there must be additionally established deadline for the working out and adoption of land use and development code or amendments to it. To coordinate the performance of the land use and development code and interests involved is enabled zoning commission, appointed by head of administration.

Land planning documentation includes three types of documents:

  • land planning projects made for allotment of settlement structural elements, public areas and location of public objects (to be built and maintained at the expense of public finances);
  • subdivision plats/projects for the establishment of land lots' boundaries (to be recorded by conventional procedure in State Land Cadastre);
  • building development plans, containing requirements and restrictions for each lot (according to land use and development code) and technical parameters for getting public engineering facilities.

Land planning documentation (save objects of federal and regional importance) is to be financed and adopted by municipal level, any expertise for that kind of documentation is not established, public hearings before adoption of land planning projects and subdivision plats are obligatory.

The execution of the design documentation is based on engineering-geological surveys. All design documentation (save family houses no higher than 3 floors and other buildings of the kind) must be delivered for state expertise and, by the initiative of developer, may pass non-state expertise. Public hearings are not obligatory at this stage.