1.6. Actors

The main actors of urban planning and land development activity are as follows:
  • public bodies of federal, regional and municipal districts levels, responsible for legal and normative base, for working out and adoption of territorial planning documents, for the design documentation and construction of theirs objects, for approval of planning documents they are concerned (including approvals by representatives of different sectors, as ecology, monuments preservation, sanitary requirement etc.) and for supervision under construction process in cases, stipulated by law;
  • state expert bodies to examine territorial planning documents and design documentation;
  • public bodies of municipal cities and settlements, responsible for working out local normative acts, master plans, land use and development regulations, land planning documentation, design documentation and construction of theirs objects, approval of planning documents they are concerned, municipal land allocation, issuance of building permits, supervision under construction process and land use control;
  • companies, providing public utilities;
  • private developers;
  • building contractors;
  • physical and juridical persons involved in the planning and development activity: participate public hearings, deliver their proposals or objections to responsible public bodies or are appealing to courts;
  • urban planning companies (owned by state, by municipality, private or mixed), individual experts;
  • research companies and scientific experts;
  • banks, courts.
Professional planners save planning work are often engaged in:
  • working out of strategic plans of territorial development (for region or city);
  • the working out of different legal act in the field (including acts on public land allocation and payments for public amenities), building codes;
  • preparation of capital investments address programs for public infrastructures development.
Negotiations of public authorities or municipal representatives with investors, key developers, and real property owners, initiated with the aim to estimate initial situation for urban planning, represent the least formalized procedures and sometimes their results give cause for suspect in corruption. Once most part of land within settlements is still owned by the state, the laws on public land allocation are of utmost importance. Nowadays public land is not yet divided as owned by federation, region and municipality, therefore till proper delimitation and recording of public land, municipal settlements are enabled to allocate public land save plots, occupied by or designated for federal, regional or municipal district uses. Principles of the public land allocation are stipulated by the RF Land Code, and later amended by the Law on Adoption of Urban Development Code. These laws stipulate provision of open tenders for selling or leasing. In the case investor looks for a site not yet recorded in Land Cadastre, this investor, according to municipal body proposal, is allowed himself work out before bids a needed land planning documentation. In the case the lot, called for bids is allocated to other pretender, all expenditures of initiator shall be compensated. If there are not other claimants the first one gets a lot without bids. Lessee of land for housing, once worked out necessary documentation for land subdivision and then supplied new lots with engineering facilities, has an exclusive right to buy it.